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Poliitikast psühholoogiliselt


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Üle-Euroopaline uuring üksikkandidaatide edust ja ebaedust

Intervjuu Indrek Tarandiga Kuku raadios

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Gruusiast, parteilisest kirest ja erakondade rahastamisest

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QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM!

Reformierakonna peamine valimislubadus – kehtestada üle-euroopaline emapalk – oli vilets petukaup!

Euroopa Parlament jõudis lõpule 18 kuud kestnud menetlusega, mille eesmärgiks oli saavutada ühtlased reeglid kõigis liikmesriikides niivõrd tundlikus valdkonnas nagu seda on lapseootel ja imikutega emade vabastamine töökohustest ning selle eest makstav kompensatsioon. Kehtiv direktiiv oli juba 18 aastat vana ning Komisjon oli algatanud muutuse.  Vananeva rahvastikuga ja madala iibega riikide ühendusel on tegelikult tarvis otsida variante, et lapsi sünniks rohkem. Samas tagades, et perede elustandard seeläbi oluliselt ei langeks.

Vaidlused koondusid Naiste Õiguste Komiteesse (FEMM), kus napi häälteenamusega edastus plenaaristungile eelnõu, mis laias laastus soovitas 20nädalast puhkust pärast sünnitust ja sealjuures 100% palga säilitamisega.  Raportöör Edite Estrela (SDE, Portugal) oli kõikide kompromisside üle õnnelik.

Kuna liikmesriikides on need emadele antavad garantiid väga erinevad, siis loomulikult lõhenesid ka Euroopa parteid rahvuslikke liine pidi. Rootslased ja soomlased olid valvel, et uus reeglistik ei vähendaks neil juba kehtivaid sotsiaalse turvalisuse standardeid. Taanlased leidsid, et pikk emapuhkus tekitab barjääre tööle naasmisel. Samas olid Inglismaa saadikud kõige häälekamad osutama ohtudele, mida säärane seadus kaasa tooks tööturul. Nende väidete kohaselt ei hakkaks ükski SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) palkama enam fertiilses eas naisi, sest kulud asendustööjõu palkamiseks jne kasvaksid astronoomiliseks. Saalis ringles number, et meede läheks maksma 121 miljardit eurot juba lähema 20 aasta jooksul.

Eelmisel korral oli raporti hääletamine edasi lükatud, et teadlased saaksid teha mõjude analüüsi (impact assessment).  Üks teine dokument väitis, et kulud teenitaks tasa naiste suurema osalemise kaudu tööturul, mis genereerib makse – juba 1,04 protsendi suurune kasv selles näitajas toovat niipalju sisse.  Euroopa Komisjoni ja EP poolt heaks kiidetud “Euroopa 2020” strateegia nõuab otsesõnu naiste osakaalu suurendamist tööturul olemasolevalt 60 protsendilt 75ni. Isiklikult näen siin probleemi, sest ega osalust ei saa meeste arvelt tekitada, vaid peaks tekkima sedavõrd rohkem uusi töökohti.

Meeletuid vaidlusi tekitas ka isapuhkuse osa määratlemine.  Et kas panna see kohustuslikuks (peamiselt katoliikliku traditsiooniga maade survestamiseks) või mitte. Mis juhtub kui isa ei taha minna lapsepuhkusele? Kas sundida vanglaga ähvardades? Või karistada ema “titetasu” vähendamisega, nagu see Rootsis juhtuks? Mõned saadikud leidsid, et pole tarvis emadele ja nende riikide valitsustele ettekirjutusi teha, sest see küsimus olgu ennekõike subsidiaarsuse printsiibi kohaselt lahendatud. Muidugi jõuti ka küsimuseni, et miks eelnõu ei arvesta lapsi adopteerivate emade õigusi puhkusele, milline parandus ka auga teksti sisse kirjutatud sai.

Illustratsiooniks on artikli lõppu lisatud üleeuroopaline tabel ema- ja isapalkade kohta.

Kolmapäeval lõppes esimene lugemine nii: 390 poolt, 192 vastu ja 59 erapooletut. Kuid ilmselt tulemused veel muutuvad, kuna paljud Euroopa roheliste esindajad hääletasid koordinaatori hetkelise valekalkulatsiooni tõttu resolutsiooni vastu ja peavad nüüd vastavalt kodukorrale seda korrigeerima. Minul õnneks seda probleemi pole:)

Kuid ma ei kirjuta sellest eelnõust üksnes eelnõu enese pärast, vaid selleks, et teha puust ette ja punaseks alljärgnev tõsiasi: Reformierakonna lubadused pole krossigi väärt! Mäletame üsna selgelt kampaaniat 2009.a, milles lubati valijaile et hääletades Reformierakonna suletud nimekirja poolt, saad tasuks üleeuroopalise emapalga. 50 000 ja veidi enamgi inimest uskus seda ja hääletas ühe erakonna esindaja valituks.  Esindaja paraku ei võtnud eelnõu menetlemisest kordagi osa ja seega ei saanud ka tutvustada kodutanumal paljureklaamitud meedet. Pole ka kuulnud, et sotsiaalminister Pevkur (Reformierakond, Eesti) oleks Euroopa sotsiaalministritele Eesti kogemusi tutvustanud ja nende järgimist nõudnud.

Küll võitles parlamendis Naiskomisjoni ettepanekute kaitsmise eest Siiri Oviir ja seda sisukalt. Ka Tunne Kelam ja Ivari Padar hoidsid arutelu käigul silma peal. Millest mina suudan järeldada vaid seda, et antud näidet tasub meeles pidada kui seisate silmitsi mõne järjekordse Reformierakonna lubadusega. Kõnealune lubadus on meenutuseks kättesaadav siit:

Hääletustulemused, sealhulgas eestlaste omad, leiate siit.

Allpoolt leiate inglise keelse ülevaatliku tabeli liikmesriikide emadus- ja isaduspuhkuste palkade kohta. Kel enam huvi asja vastu, võib külastada ELi vastastikust sotsiaalkaitsealast infosüsteemi: MISSOC.

Maternity leave arrangements 2009 (MISSOC, European Commission)

Country No. of days Level of payment
Austria 8 weeks before and after confinement 100% of the amount of the average net income
Belgium Prenatal leave: 6 weeks before the expected date of delivery. The week immediately preceding delivery is compulsory, the other weeks are optional.

Postnatal leave: 9 mandatory weeks after delivery.

82% of wages (without ceiling) in the first 30 days, and 75% of wages up to ceiling respectively, for period from 31st day, and for period of prolongation of the leave before the confinement.
Bulgaria 410 days for each child, 45 days of which shall compulsorily be taken before and 95 after the confinement.

After use of the pregnancy, child-birth or adoption leave, if the child has not been placed in a child-care establishment, the mother shall be entitled to an additional child-care leave for a first, second, and third child until the child’s attainment of the age of two years, and six months for each additional child.

135 days are paid at 90% of the average contributory, the rest at social security benefit.
Cyprus 18 weeks beginning between the 6th and 2nd week before the expected week of confinement or the week of delivery. Basic Benefit: 75% of the lower part of weekly average insurable earnings over the benefit year, increased to 80%, 90% and 100% for one, two or three dependants respectively.

* Supplementary Benefit: 75% of the upper part of weekly average insurable earnings over the benefit year (No fixed maximum amount, earnings ceiling applied).

Maternity Grant: € 466 per child.

Czech Republic 28 weeks, beginning six to eight weeks before expected birth, no obligatory period Maternity Benefit: 70% of the Daily Assessment Base.

Daily Assessment Base: calculated using gross monthly earnings which are taken into account as follows:

* up to CZK 786 (€ 31): 100 %

* CZK 786(€ 31) to CZK 1,178 (€ 46): 60%

* CZK 1.178 (€ 46) to CZK 2,356 (€ 91): 30 %

* Earnings over CZK 2,356 (€ 91) are not taken into account.

Denmark 4 weeks before expected confinement and 14 weeks after. Maternity cash benefit calculated on the basis of the hourly wage of the employee with a maximum of DKK 3,625 (€ 487) per week or DKK 98 (€ 13) per hour (37 hours per week), and on the number of hours of work.
Estonia 140 calendar days, if the maternity leave commences at least 30 calendar days before the estimated date of confinement, otherwise the benefit decreases. 100% of the reference wage
Finland 105 consecutive calendar days except Sundays, 30-50 of which before expected date of confinement Minimum cash benefit is € 22.04 per day.

For the first 56 weekdays of the maternal leave the maternity allowance is 90% of earned income up to € 49,003 (annual) and 32.5% for an income exceeding this level. For the rest of the maternal leave (49 days) the allowance is 70% up to earned income of € 31,850, 40% between € 31,850 and € 49,003 and 25% of earned income exceeding this latter level.

France 16 weeks (6 before confinement and 10 after);

Possibility to postpone the maternity leave prior to confinement after the child birth (for a maximum period of 3 weeks and upon medical advice).

100% of the net salary with ceiling:

Maximum:

€ 76.54 per day

Minimum:

€ 8.55 per day.

Germany 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after confinement Maternity Benefit:

Average net wage of insured person, reduced with legal contributions, with maximum of € 13 per day. Difference covered by supplement paid by employer (in case of suppression of this supplement, complement paid by the State). Women employees who are not insured receive a maximum of € 210.

Greece 56 days before and 63 days after confinement Maternity benefit:  Maximum (no dependants): € 47.47 per day.

Maximum (4 dependants): € 65.20 per day.

Hungary 24 weeks (4 weeks before and 20 weeks after planned date of birth, or 24 weeks after the date of birth, depending on the mothers’ choice). Birth Grant: One-off lump-sum payment of 225% of the minimum Old-age Pension= HUF 64,125 (€ 237).

Pregnancy-Confinement Benefit: 70% of the daily average gross earnings of the previous year.

Ireland 26 weeks – at least 2 must be taken before and 4 weeks after confinement. Maternity benefit:

* 80% of average weekly earnings (subject to a ceiling) in the relevant tax year. Minimum € 230.30, maximum € 280 per week or

Italy 1 or 2 months before the presumed confinement date and 3 or 4 months (in case of one month of abstention before delivery) after (optionally 6 supplementary months). 80% of earnings for the compulsory period, and 30% for the supplementary period.
Latvia 112 calendar days (56 days for pregnancy leave and 56 calendar days for childbirth leave). 100%
Lithuania 70 calendar days preceding delivery and 56 days after 100%
Malta 14 weeks paid leave of which at least 5 weeks have to be taken after delivery of a child. a flat-rate of € 67.56 per week for 14 weeks, paid either in full after confinement, or in two instalments before and after confinement
Luxembourg 8 weeks before expected date of confinement and 8 weeks after actual date of confinement 100%
Netherlands 16 weeks. Prior to confinement, a leave between six and four weeks is compulsory; ten to twelve weeks remain for leave after confinement 100% of the daily wage. Maximum daily wage considered: € 185.46.
Poland 20 weeks, Leave may commence 2 weeks before the expected date of birth. 100%
Portugal 120 or 150 consecutive days of leave, according to the parents’ choice, which can be divided between them after birth, except for the leave reserved for the mother. The duration of the leave is extended by 30 days in case of shared leave, provided each parent takes a leave of 30 consecutive days, or two periods of 15 consecutive days, after the compulsory leave reserved for the mother Daily allowance of 100% of the average daily wage
Romania 63 days prior to the birth and 63 days after birth 85% of the average insured gross earnings over the last 6 months
Slovakia 6 – 8 weeks before confinement for a total duration of 28 weeks 55% of the daily assessment base, upper limit about 500€
Slovenia 105 calendar days, of which 28 days before the confinement 100%
Spain 16 weeks; transferable to partner, 6 weeks after birth for mother 100% (employer)
Sweden 50 days during the last 60 days before the expected confinement are paid, a total of 480 days per child. The days may be taken out earliest 60 days before expected confinement by the woman, and by either of the parents until the child is 8 years old. Parents sharing custody are entitled to half of the total number of benefit days each. This right can be transferred to the other parent with the exception of 60 benefit days each, that are reserved for the mother respectively the father. 80% of the income
UK 26 weeks ordinary maternity leave and 26 weeks additional unpaid maternity leave Employer pays 90% of her average earnings (with no upper limit) for the first 6 weeks of the maternity pay period; then lump sum of about € 144 per week

Paternity leave arrangements 2009 (MISSOC, European Commission)

Country No. of days Level of payment
Austria None None
Belgium 10 days to be taken with 30 days after birth (or adoption). 3 days: 100% (employer); Next: 82 % up to max. (health insurance)
Bulgaria* Fathers with at least 12 months of insurance can take 15 days of paid leave after the childbirth. In case of mother’s approval, the father can use her paid maternity leave from the 6th month of the child until the child reaches 1 year of age. 90% of average income
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark 2 weeks to be taken within 14 weeks after birth;

After the 14th week, both parents share a 32-week leave, that can be split up or postponed, but must be taken before the 9th birthday of the child

90 % up to maximum
Estonia 10 days to be taken during the maternity leave or during two months after the birth of a child 100% of average earnings (calculated on earnings from six previous calendar months) up to a ceiling of three times average monthly earnings
Finland 18 week days; If the father uses at least 12 days of parents’ allowance then he is entitled to an additional 1-12 days 75% of earned income up to € 49,003 (annual) and 32.5% for an income exceeding this level
France 11 days (18 days in case of multiple births) within the 4 months following the birth. 100% of the net salary with ceiling:

Maximum:   € 76.54 per day

Minimum:    € 8.55 per day

Germany None None
Greece 2 days 100%
Hungary 5 days (social security )
Ireland None
Italy The optional supplementary parental leave may be requested by the father if the mother does not claim, or if the father has sole charge. 80% by health insurance also in case of adoption
Latvia 10 calendar days 100%
Lithuania Maximum 1 month from the date of childbirth 100%
Malta
Luxembourg 2 days at child’s birth 100 % (employer)
Netherlands 2 days (within a month after birth) 100%
Poland* 1 week (2 weeks from 2012) 100%
Portugal Compulsory leave of 10 days, of which 5 days must be taken consecutively immediately after birth and 5 days during the subsequent 30 days. After this period, voluntary leave of 10 days, consecutive or not, to be taken during the initial parental leave of the mother. 100%
Romania* 5 days 100%
Slovakia
Slovenia* 90 days of which 15 days have to be used during the first 6 months of the child’s life, whereas the remaining 75 days are to be used until the child is 3 years old 100% during the first 15 days, for the remaining 75 days the state pays social security contributions for the father.
Spain 13 days (20 days in certain cases), 2 extra days per child in the event of multiple birth, adoption or foster care placement. 100% (employer)
Sweden 10 days after the child’s birth to be used during the first 90 days and simultaneously with the mother 80% up to maximum of €43,070 per year
UK 2 weeks to be taken by blocks of one week within 8 weeks of birth €117.18 week or 90% of earnings if this is less

Allikas:

MISSOC: “Comparative Tables on Social Protection”


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Vali inimene, mitte part

Hmm, pardid, broilerid ja muud sulelised. Muuda Eesti poliitikamaastik inimlikuks ja vali inimene!

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